The term El Nino (Spanish for “the Christ Child”) was originally used by fishermen along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru to refer to a warm ocean current that typically appears around Christmastime and lasts for several months. Fish are less abundant during these warm intervals, yet in some years, however, the water is especially warm and the break in the fishing season persists into May or even June. El Nino also brings heavy rains. During the past 40 years, nine El Ninos have affected the South American coast. Most of them raised water temperatures not only along the coast, but also at the Galapagos islands and in a belt stretching 5000 miles across the equatorial Pacific. The weaker events raised sea temperatures only by one to two degrees Fahrenheit, but the strong ones, like the El Nino of 1982-83, left an imprint, not only upon the local weather and marine life, but also on climatic conditions around the globe. This book includes a detailed overview and bibliography with complete title, author and subject indexes.