Educational Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability is a core text for use in a first level graduate course in educational measurement and testing. In addition to covering the topics traditionally found in core textbooks for this course, this text also provides coverage of contemporary topics (including national testing programs, international achievement comparisons, the value added assessment of schools and teachers, and the public policy debate on selective admissions vs. affirmative minority enrollment).
Robert Wright earned a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Kutztown University of Pennsylvania in 1966, and began teaching high school science. A few years later in 1969 he earned a Masters degree in school counseling from West Chester University and was employed as a public school counselor, first with high school students and later with middle school students. In 1974 he completed a doctorate (Ph.D.) in Educational Psychology with specializations in child & adolescent development and educational measurement from Temple University. As part of that degree he completed a clinical fellowship in rehabilitation counseling at Moss Hospital, part of the Albert Einstein Medical Center (Philadelphia). Following graduation he completed advanced studies in school psychology at Lehigh University. Professor Wright has taught counseling and supervised counseling interns and has also taught educational measurement, and educational statistics & research for graduate students in counseling. He is a member of the American Counseling Association, the American School Counselor Association, the American Psychological Association (Division 17, counseling psychology), the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, and the American Educational Research Association. He is professionally licensed to practice in Pennsylvania. During his career Professor Wright chaired 114 doctoral dissertations, published and presented over 120 articles and paper presentations and has had four books published.
Preface SECTION ONE: EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT IN AMERICA: HISTORY, GOALS, AND APPLICATIONS 1. Issues and Measurement Practices in the Schools Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Accountability, Assessment, and Testing Why do we Test? Types and Varieties of Tests Assumptions Made by Test Developers Trends in Testing Law and Testing Case Law Educational Ethics and Testing Summary Discussion Questions 2. History of Testing in American Education Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Scientific Measurement and Racism The Next Generation Single Factor Models Multiple Factor Models Contemporary Public Schools Winds of Change Summary Discussion Questions SECTION TWO: THE MEANING AND QUALITY OF TEST SCORES 3. The Measurement and Description of Variables Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Variables Central Tendency Normal Distribution Variation and Variance Standard Scores Variation Correlation Summary Discussion Questions 4. Reliability as a Measure of Test Quality Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Reliability Internal Consistency Gains and Losses Standard Error of Measurement Factors with an Impact on Reliability Reliability of Cut Scores Reliability of Performance Tasks and Criterion Tests Summary Discussion Questions 5. Validity as a Measure of Test Quality Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Validity: The Traditional Context of Validity Contemporary View Comparison Groups Test Bias and Fairness Summary Discussion Questions SECTION THREE: TESTING OF STUDENTS BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS 6. Planning and Constructing Classroom Tests Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Testing and Teaching Formative Tests Summative Evaluations Testing Formats Summary Discussion Questions 7. Classroom Development and Use of Extended Answer Tests Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Homework Completion or Short Answer The Essay Test Bluffing Essay Test Format Essay Grading The SAT Essay Test Summary Discussion Questions 8. Item Selection and Analysis Issues and Themes Classroom Testing A Priori Qualitative Assessment and Analysis of Tests Item Difficulty Index Distracter Analysis Item Analysis with Constructed or Supply Type Items Discrimination Computer Adaptive Testing Item Response Theory (IRT) Summary Discussion Questions 9. Performance Assessments Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Assessment and Instruction Performance Based Assessments Scoring Portfolios Summary Discussion Questions 10. Grades, Progress Reports, and Report Cards Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Background and History Purposes of Report Card Grades Student Grades Report Card Comments On-line Report Cards Report Card Grades for the Gifted Grades and Students with Special Needs The Case of Transfer Students Grade Point Average and Class Rank Teacher-Parent Conference Grade Inflation Promotion and Graduation Summary Discussion Questions SECTION FOUR: TESTING FOR STUDENT LEARNING, TALENT, APTITUDE, AND SPECIAL NEEDS 11. Standardized Measures of Learning Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Explaining Test Scores to Parents Major Achievement Test Batteries State Mandated Assessments Summary Discussion Questions 12. Testing of Aptitude and Selection Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Aptitude Scholastic Aptitude and Intelligence Training of Test Administrators Tests of Intelligence Administered One-on-One Tests of Intelligence Administered to Groups Group Administered Aptitude Tests Assessment of Talented and Gifted Children Assessment of Aptitude for College Study Summary Discussion Questions 13. Identification of Learning Problems Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Incidence Informal Screening Instructional Support Team Referral, Assessment, and the IEP Committee Assessment Process Formal Assessments of Attention and Focus AD/HD Measurement Scales Assessments of Reading Problems Early Reading Tests Assessments of Language and Speech Problems Measures for the Identification of Problems Learning Mathematics Individualized Educational Plan Accommodations for Children with Disabilities Summary Discussion Questions SECTION FIVE: NO CHILD, TEACHER, OR SCHOOL LEFT BEHIND 14. International, National, and Statewide Testing Programs Issues and Themes Learning Objectives International Comparisons Nation's Report Card School Assessments No Child Left Behind Summary Discussion Questions 15. Student, Family, and Teacher Factors in Test Scores Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Students Families Teachers Summary Discussion Questions 16. Test Preparation for Successful Schools Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Accountability Angst Legal and Ethical Requirements Marginal Ethics Successful Schools Classroom Instruction Architecture and School Design Administration Summary Discussion Questions 17. Accountability and Evaluation Issues and Themes Learning Objectives Evaluation Overview Systematic Program Evaluation Steps in a Systematic Evaluation Value-added Evaluation Summary Discussion Questions References Glossary Index About the Author
"For one of the only times in my career, and according to my master's students' positive reactions and statements, Wright's text encourages readers to think closely and with high interest about current assessment in education. The book gives educators strong justification and clarification for what they have been thinking about assessment in their classrooms" -- Randy Nichols "This is the best book I've found for the Test and Measurements course for school counselors." -- Dr. Stacey Solomon
Sage Publications (CA)
Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability
Robert J. Wright
SAGE Publications Inc
Place of Publication
Country of Publication
Southern Cross University, Australia Widener University Widener Univer